Motivation is an activity that results in channeling and maintaining human behavior, and is a process to try to influence someone to do something we want. An employee might carry out a job that is charged to him well, maybe not. So from that it is one of the tasks of a leader to be able to provide motivation (encouragement to his subordinates so that they can work according to the direction given.
Content theory deals with several names such as Maslow, Mc, Gregor, Herzberg, Atkinson and McCelland.
1. Hierarchy of Needs theory, according to maslow in every human being there are five levels of needs, namely:
- Security, safety and protection
- Social, loving, belonging
- Appreciation, internal respect such as self-esteem, achievement
- Self-actualization, the urge to become what he can become.
So if a leader wants to motivate someone, according to Maslow, the leader needs to understand being on which subordinate steps and focusing on meeting those needs or his needs for that level.
2. Theory X and Y, the theory put forward by Douglas McGregor which states that two distinctly different views about humans, are basically one negative (theory X) which presupposes that low order needs dominate individuals, and others are positive (Y theory) that high order needs dominate individuals.
3. Motivation Theory – Hygiene, stated by psychologist Frederick Herzberg, who developed a theory of satisfaction called the two-factor theory of motivation. These two factors are called factors that make people feel dissatisfied or the factors that are either extrinsic-intrinsic or climate motvator depend on the person discussing the theory. The factors of this series are called satisfiers or motivators which include:
- Progress (advancement)
- The work itself (the work itself)
- The possibility of developing (the possibility of growth)
4. McClelland’s theory of needs, this theory focuses on three needs
5. Expectation Theory – Victor Vroom, this theory argues that the power of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the action will be followed by a particular output and on the attractiveness of the output for that individual. Expectation theory says that an employee is motivated to run a high level of effort if he believes an effort will lead to a good performance assessment, a good assessment will encourage organizational rewards, such as bonuses, salary increases, or promotions and rewards that will satisfy personal goals the employee.
6. Justice Theory, this motivational theory is based on the assumption that people are motivated by the desire to be treated fairly in work, individuals work to get exchange rewards from the organization
7. Reinforcement theory, this theory does not use the concept of a motive or process of motivation. Instead this theory explains how the past behavioral consequences affect future actions in the learning process.
Various views on motivation in the organization
1. Traditional Model, this motivational tool is based on the assumption that actual workers are lazy and can be encouraged only with financial rewards.
2. Human Resource Model, experts argue that employees actually have very diverse motivations, not only because of their motivation or desire for satisfaction, but also the need for achievement and have art in working. They think that most individuals already have the drive to get the job done well, and not always that employees see work as something that is not fun.
Types of Motivation
Positive motivation and negative motivation, positive motivation is a process to try to influence other people to run something we want by giving the possibility to get a prize. Negative motivation is the process of influencing someone to want to do something we want, but the basic technique used is through the power of fear.
The most basic evidence for the success of a form of motivation is the results obtained from the implementation of a job.