Monthly Archives: February 2019

Motivation in Management

Motivation is an activity that results in channeling and maintaining human behavior, and is a process to try to influence someone to do something we want. An employee might carry out a job that is charged to him well, maybe not. So from that it is one of the tasks of a leader to be able to provide motivation (encouragement to his subordinates so that they can work according to the direction given.

Content Theory

Content theory deals with several names such as Maslow, Mc, Gregor, Herzberg, Atkinson and McCelland.

1. Hierarchy of Needs theory, according to maslow in every human being there are five levels of needs, namely:

  • physiological
  • Security, safety and protection
  • Social, loving, belonging
  • Appreciation, internal respect such as self-esteem, achievement
  • Self-actualization, the urge to become what he can become.

So if a leader wants to motivate someone, according to Maslow, the leader needs to understand being on which subordinate steps and focusing on meeting those needs or his needs for that level.

2. Theory X and Y, the theory put forward by Douglas McGregor which states that two distinctly different views about humans, are basically one negative (theory X) which presupposes that low order needs dominate individuals, and others are positive (Y theory) that high order needs dominate individuals.

3. Motivation Theory – Hygiene, stated by psychologist Frederick Herzberg, who developed a theory of satisfaction called the two-factor theory of motivation. These two factors are called factors that make people feel dissatisfied or the factors that are either extrinsic-intrinsic or climate motvator depend on the person discussing the theory. The factors of this series are called satisfiers or motivators which include:

  • Achievement
  • Recognition
  • Responsibility
  • Progress (advancement)
  • The work itself (the work itself)
  • The possibility of developing (the possibility of growth)

4. McClelland’s theory of needs, this theory focuses on three needs

  • Achievement
  • Power
  • Affiliation

5. Expectation Theory – Victor Vroom, this theory argues that the power of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the action will be followed by a particular output and on the attractiveness of the output for that individual. Expectation theory says that an employee is motivated to run a high level of effort if he believes an effort will lead to a good performance assessment, a good assessment will encourage organizational rewards, such as bonuses, salary increases, or promotions and rewards that will satisfy personal goals the employee.

6. Justice Theory, this motivational theory is based on the assumption that people are motivated by the desire to be treated fairly in work, individuals work to get exchange rewards from the organization

7. Reinforcement theory, this theory does not use the concept of a motive or process of motivation. Instead this theory explains how the past behavioral consequences affect future actions in the learning process.

Various views on motivation in the organization

1. Traditional Model, this motivational tool is based on the assumption that actual workers are lazy and can be encouraged only with financial rewards.

2. Human Resource Model, experts argue that employees actually have very diverse motivations, not only because of their motivation or desire for satisfaction, but also the need for achievement and have art in working. They think that most individuals already have the drive to get the job done well, and not always that employees see work as something that is not fun.

Types of Motivation

Positive motivation and negative motivation, positive motivation is a process to try to influence other people to run something we want by giving the possibility to get a prize. Negative motivation is the process of influencing someone to want to do something we want, but the basic technique used is through the power of fear.

The most basic evidence for the success of a form of motivation is the results obtained from the implementation of a job.

Cure The Problem of Depression

There are four cases with problems regarding depression. Ben who was depressed because he did not want to grow old, Marissa who was easily angry and could not control herself, Vic, who felt she was worthless, and Linda who always experienced anxiety. To understand their problems, their therapists do the same thing: asking questions with five aspects of life: 1) thoughts (beliefs, shadows, memories), 2) moods, 3) behaviors, 4) physical reactions, and 5) the environment (the former and the present). After giving these questions, patients who are depressed find out what causes them depression, besides the therapist knows what action to take.

The five aspects mentioned above are better known as the five components for each of the problems that influence each other and are related to each other. And if only a few changes occur in one of the five components, it can cause a change in the other components. If a change occurs, it can cause stress, knowing that there are changes that occur in the mind, we can create positive improvements that can last a long time.


Thought helps determine the mood we experience. Besides that thinking also influences how we behave, what we will do and what we will not do, and the quality of our performance. Even our biological response is influenced by thinking and belief. Because in this chapter we learn how thinking affects the mood we experience, of course we wonder why some people tend to have certain thoughts and moods, this can be due to biological or genetic factors, but actually the influence of environmental factors also helps determine attitudes, beliefs, and thoughts that develop during childhood and often continue into adulthood.

Changing our way of thinking to feel better can be identified and changing thinking is an important part of cognitive therapy. This therapy can help us see all the information available, so it’s not just positive thinking. Although changes in thinking are often very important, many problems require changes in behavior, physical function, and environment.


A strong mood will show that something important is happening in our lives. Usually, moods can be described in one word, for example happy. Identifying a particular mood can help us determine and record goals, and make us able to choose interventions intended to reduce certain moods. But it is important to be able to distinguish between situations, moods and thoughts because they are different things. Besides identifying moods, it is also important to learn to rank the intensity of the mood we are experiencing. By ranking our mood, we are able to evaluate the strength and record of fluctuations in our emotional reactions. Identifying and ranking moods is an important skill. The more we know the mood, the easier it is for us to recognize and give it a name.


With a mindset, it helps us develop a set of skills that can improve our moods and relationships, and also cause positive behavioral changes. The three columns of thought record distinguish one situation from the feelings and thoughts we have in the situation. In addition, the mindset also lists evidence, both those that support and those that do not support the thoughts we identify. From a note of thought, we are given the opportunity to develop new ways of thinking that can make us feel better. Just as in developing each new skill, we must practice a lot of filling out many thought notes before achieving consistent results.


Automatic thinking is a thought that arises in our minds spontaneously at a certain time of day. Automatic thinking is always there every time we have a strong mood, because automatic thinking is the key to understanding our emotional reactions. This automatic thinking can be in the form of words, shadows, or memory. We can also identify automatic thinking. To identify it, pay attention to what comes to mind when you have a certain strong mood. Identifying our automatic thinking is an important step to feeling better and overcoming problems better. Besides that there is also what is called heat thinking. This hot thinking is also automatic thinking only contains the strongest emotional content.


When we have negative automatic thinking, we usually hold on to data that confirms our conclusions. But even so, it is very important to consider our heat thoughts as well as hypotheses or conclusions. By gathering evidence that supports or does not support our heat thinking, it can help clarify our thinking and reduce the intensity of stressful moods. The evidence consists of data, information, and facts not interpretations. It is important to write down all the evidence that shows that our hot thinking is not 100% true. By considering information that is not in accordance with our hot thoughts, this can help us feel better.


In the Thinking Note column 6, there is “Alternative or Balanced Thought”, this column is a summary of important evidence collected and written in column 4 (Evidence that supports hot thinking) and column 5 (Evidence that does not support hot thinking). If the evidence in columns 4 and 5 does not support initial heat thinking, write an alternative view in column 6. And if only a few support early heat thinking, then write balanced thinking which is a summary, both supporting and not supporting initial thinking. Alternative or balanced thinking is not merely positive thinking or rationalization. On the contrary, they reflect the new meaning of various situations based on all available evidence. Changes in emotional responses to a situation are often related to the level of our trust in the alternative or balanced thinking that we write.

The more Thinking Notes that we fill out, the easier it will be for us to think flexibly about various situations and begin to consider alternative or balanced explanations of various events automatically without having to write down existing evidence.


At first maybe we will not immediately believe fully in our alternative or balanced thinking. But we can do experiments to test it, this experiment can help increase our confidence in new thinking. When our trust in alternative or balanced thinking increases. Our increasingly good mood will stabilize. But if the experiment does not support our new beliefs, we can use this information to build different beliefs that reflect our experience. Experiment in small steps to be easy to implement, from these small steps to help us make big steps later. In addition, it is important to record our experiments to find out the results later. While the action plan can help us overcome the problems that we have anticipated beforehand. The action plan must be specific, meaning it includes plans to overcome problems that may arise, determine the time to start, and record progress achieved.


Core assumptions and beliefs are at the root of our automatic thinking. Assumptions can be expressed in the phrase “If … then …,” while core beliefs are absolute or absolute statements. Damaging assumptions and beliefs can be weakened when new assumptions can be identified and strengthened. While core beliefs can be identified by looking for themes in Notes

Thought and / or with the technique of dart decreasing. This core belief can be about yourself, others, or the world. So that belief is 100% true or not, can be tested by looking for various proofs. new core beliefs can be strengthened by recording various experiences that match those new beliefs, ranking our new level of trust, conducting experiments to test them, then testing the historical beliefs of those new beliefs. Core beliefs often change very slowly, but over time they will become stronger and more stable and also have a strong influence on our ways of thinking and behaving and on our feelings.


Depression not only describes the mood, but also includes changes in our thinking, behavior, and biology. Mind Management Depression Inventory can be used to rank symptoms of depression. Weekly scores in the inventory can be written to record changes in depression. Learning to change our thinking is the main focus of cognitive therapy for depression. Actually treatment can also help, especially for people who experience intense depression or long-term depression.

Don’t forget to rank your mood during various activities, write on the weekly schedule. This can help us find a connection between behavior and depression. In addition, conducting a Weekly Activity Schedule analysis can show behavioral changes to help us feel better. By doing various fun activities that make us get things done, help us feel better when we are depressed.


There are several anxiety disorders, namely phobias, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsession, compulsion, and anxiety in general.

While the symptoms of anxiety, including tense muscles, fast heartbeat, dizziness, avoidance, and nervousness. Then there are also cognitive components of anxiety that include perception of danger, susceptibility to resistance, or threats.

The thoughts that accompany anxiety often begin with “What if …,” and contain the theme that “something bad will happen”. Actually panic is also anxiety, only panic is extreme anxiety accompanied by a misinterpretation of the catastrophic nature of physical or mental sensations, for example “I got a heart attack,” “I will die,” or “I’m crazy.” Anxiety can be reduced or eliminated with cognitive restructuring, relaxation exercises, and overcoming avoidance habits.


Anger is characterized by tense muscles, increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, and defensive or attacking attitudes. While the cognitive component of anger includes perceptions because it is treated unfairly or improperly or considers other people dangerous or unfair. Anger can range from a little annoyed to very angry. Agard can control anger, there are effective methods to do, namely cognitive restructuring, preparing to face various high-risk events that make us angry, imagination, recognize signs of anger early, take a moment (timeout), practice expressing content heart firmly, and partner therapy.

Guilt is when we feel guilty when we believe that we have done something wrong. This guilt is often accompanied by thoughts that contain the words “should” and “should”.

While shame includes the perception that we have made a mistake, that we need to keep it as a secret, and that what we have done means something bad about us.

Guilt and shame can be reduced or eliminated by assessing the seriousness of our actions, weighing personal responsibility, ending silence, forgiving ourselves, and making improvements.